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Anciently the number of the bodies presumed to make up our solar system, to which number was ascribed a magical significance. Identified with them were the days of the week and the seven notes of the Diatonic scale. In 1666 Newton ascribed to them the seven hues of the spectrum.
Man was presumed to be a seven-fold being:
Sun:......His life-forces; the spiritual being within.
Moon:.....His psychic being; the vegetable kingdom.
Mercury:..His intellect; the realm of Mind.
Venus:....His divine, immortal self; the benevolent nature.
Mars:.....His bestial nature; the animal nature.
Jupiter:..His higher physical nature; the quality of optimism.
Saturn:...His physical being; the mineral kingdom.
The seven deadly sins of the ancient theologians were said to have been of astrological origin: Pride, Jupiter; covetousness, Saturn; lust, Venus; wrath, Mars; gluttony, Mercury; envy, Moon; indolence, Sun.
Also the seven virtues: Chastity, Moon; love, Venus; courage, Mars; faith, Jupiter; hope, Sun; wisdom, Mercury; and prudence, Saturn.
There were also seven wise men of Greece; the seven-fold Amen; the Seven Wonders of the World; the Book of the Seven Seals (Rev. 5,5), and the seven angels (Rev. 5,8).
The Seven against Thebes were the seven heroes who undertook an expedition to aid Polynices against his brother Eteoclus. The oracle promised success to whichever brother Oedipus favored; but he cursed both, and the brothers slew each other.
Seven has been explained as compounded of "The Ternary of God and the Quarternary of the world," as representing "three-fold and four-fold happiness," making 3 + 4 = 7 a sacred number: a reference to the 4 quadruplicities and the 3 triplicities. Any multiple of seven became a "great number": a jubilee year of restitution.
Since every seventh year from time immemorial was believed to form some material alteration, it has been observed in some professions as a sabbatical year of rest, comparable to the seventh day on which the Creator rested from his labors - as recounted in the Book of Genesis. For the Seven Ages of Man, v. Planetary, Ages of Man.
Within the rituals of occultic orders, such as our Order ( Freemasonry ), it is required that the candidate circle the altar of the lodge in a particular manner. It is called circumambulation. Circumambulation is the practice of "...making a circuit about a thing or in an area of reverence..." In Masonry, circumambulation involves the making of a circuit around the Lodge, while keeping the right hand toward the altar.
"The rite is symbolic of the apparent daily course of the sun, and was undoubtedly derived from the ancient sun-worship."
"During the circuits of the lodge room, corners should be squared in accordance with the ancient tradition of 'squaring the lodge'".
Further, the Entered Apprentice during initiation shall proceed to the northeast corner of the Lodge three times during the circumambulation, the Fellowcraft during passing shall proceed there four times, and the Master being raised shall proceed there five times.
The 47th Proposition of Euclid is known as "that amazing Proposition which is the foundation of all Masonry." It is also known as the Pythagorean Theorem. The Pythagorean Theorem is important in building, and one of its uses is to square a room. Builders use the theorem to square the corners of rooms by using the ratio of the numbers three, four and five. three squared plus four squared = five squared. This was, with the Egyptians several thousand years ago, the standard and symbol of perfection ; and they made it also the basis of all their measurements ; they looked on it as the symbol of Universal Nature, the side "4" being "Osiris" the male principle, "3" the female principle "Isis", and "5" "Horus the son", the product of these two principles;---they said 3 was the first perfect odd number, that 4 was the square of 2 the first even number, and 5 was the result of 3 and 2.
Any Mason, after having been raised, has reproduced by circumambulation the numbers three, four and five in the most significant corner of the Lodge, the Northeast, and thereby has unknowingly recited with his feet the formula which is contained in the 47th problem, and thereby has "squared the Lodge".